Conservation and Management Measures (CMMs) describe binding decisions agreed by the members (including all 14 Small Island Developing States) and cooperating non-members of the Western and Central Pacific Fisheries Commission (WCPFC) at their annual meetings. The latest updates to CMMs are maintained by WCPFC.
CMMs direct the Small Island Developing States’ policies and rules aimed at reducing the effects of fishing on other animals such as sharks, sea turtles, whales, dolphins and seabirds.
Ensure longline fishing vessels targeting tuna and Billfish do not: (a) use or carry wire trace as branch lines or leaders; or (b) use branch lines running directly off the longline floats or droplines, known as shark lines.
Develop and implement management plans including fishing authorisations (or licences) for any longline fishing vessels targeting sharks. Plans must include details of how the fishery will avoid catching and maximise live releasing of highly depleted shark species, such as silky and oceanic whitetip sharks, caught incidentally.
Implement FAO Guidelines to Reduce Sea Turtle Mortality in Fishing Operations, and ensure the safe handling of all captured turtles.
Ensure fishers bring on board any captured hard-shell turtle that is comatose or inactive, and foster its recovery before returning it to the water.
Ensure operators of purse-seine vessels (a) avoid encircling sea turtles, and if accidentally entangled that they are safely released; (b) release all sea turtles entangled in FADs or other fishing gear; (c) stop net roll if a turtle is entangled and release it before continuing the net roll; and (d) carry and use dip nets to handle turtles.
Ensure operators of longline fishing vessels carry and use line cutters, de-hookers and dip nets to handle and promptly release any turtles caught or entangled.
Ensure longline vessels fishing for swordfish where they are likely to have significant interactions with turtles in shallow waters reduce their impact on turtles by using circle hooks, whole finfish bait or another approved measure.
Require fishing vessel operators to record and report all incidents involving turtles.
Report the results of any research into modified FADs that avoid turtle entanglement.
Report on how IPOA-Seabirds is implemented, including national plans of action for reducing incidental catches of seabirds in longline fisheries.
Require longline vessels fishing south of 30°S to use at least 2 of the following 3 measures: weighted branch lines, night setting and tori lines (bird scaring lines).
Require large-scale (>24 metres) longline vessels fishing north of 23°N to use at least 2 of the mitigation measures listed in the table below. At least one of those measures must be from Column A in the table below.
Require small-scale (<24 metres) longline vessels fishing north of 23°N to use at least one of the mitigation measures listed in Column A in the table below.
Encourage longline vessels fishing in areas between 30°S and 23°N to use one or more of the seabird bycatch mitigation measures listed in the table below.
Undertake and report on any research that improves seabird bycatch mitigation measures.
Use measures that make sure that any seabird captured alive during longlining is released alive in the best possible condition, including removing any hooks.
Report annually all data collected by observers on interactions with seabirds.
Seabird bycatch mitigation measures
Side setting with a bird curtain and weighted branch lines